Ivan V. Maksimovich, MD, PhD. ISTAART member, ESC member, EAPCI member, WSO member, ESO member, EPA member. Head Physician of Clinic of Cardiovascular Diseases named after Most Holy John Tobolsky (Moscow, Russia) since 1993. One of the major problems the clinic deals with is the diagnosis and treatment of various brain lesions including Alzheimer\'s disease. Over the past 20 years I have published over 200 scientific works on this subject.
Background: Diagnosis of preclinical AD stage is one of acute problems nowadays. The research was conducted on descendants of patients suffering from AD.\r\nMethods: 14 patients aged 34-48 (mean age 42) were examined, 5 (35.71%) men, 9 (64.29 %) women, one of whose parents was diagnosed with AD and one of whose grandparents suffered from mental disorders.\r\nExamination included: CDR, MMSE, Tomography Dementia Rating scale (TDR), cerebral CT, MRI, SG, REG, cerebral MUGA.\r\nResults:\r\nThe examination revealed:\r\n• memory disorder - 14 (100%) patients;\r\n• signs of dementia were not detected in any case;\r\n• cognitive functions decrease to 26-28 MMSE points - 14 (100%);\r\n• reduced blood flow in the cerebral hemispheres - 14 (100%);\r\n• decrease in volume pulse blood filling in carotid basins - 12 (85.71%) patients;\r\nInvoluntary changes in the brain were detected in 14 (100%) patients who had:\r\n• widening of the subarachnoid space - 13 (92.86%) patients;\r\n• 4-8% decrease in the temporal lobes volume - 14 (100%) patients;\r\n• Sylvian fissures expansion - 14 (100%) patients;\r\n• initial manifestations of non-occlusive hydracephaly - 4 (28.57%) patients.\r\nSimptoms of dyscirculatory angiopathy of Alzheimer\'s type (DAAT) were detected in 14 (100%) patients who had:\r\n• reduction of the number of capillaries in temporal and frontal parietal areas - 14 (100%) patients;\r\n• development of multiple arteriovenous shunts in the basins of arteries supplying blood to temporal and frontal parietal areas - 14 (100%) patients;\r\n• early venous discharge of arterial blood into the venous bed - 14 (100%) patients;\r\n• abnormal widening of lateral veins - 12 (85.71%) patients;\r\n• stagnation of venous blood at the border of the frontal and parietal areas - 11 (78.57%) patients;\r\n• increased looping of intracerebral arteries - 12 (85.71%) patients.\r\nConclusions: The data obtained indicate that in 14 (100%) patients, amid a decrease in memory, there is a decrease in the volume of temporal lobes by 4-8% (TDR-0), as well as dyscirculatory angiopathy of Alzheimer\'s type (DAAT), which clearly shows that they have preclinical AD stage.\r\n\r\nKeywords: Alzheimer\'s disease, AD, capillaries, TDR, dyscirculatory angiopathy of Alzheimer’s type, DAAT, Preclinical AD stage.\r\n